CHIN101-05 FALL 2014
study guides
Study Guides Practical Chinese Reader - 實用漢語
PCR Lesson 3 Study Guide

(Click to view stroke sequence animation.)





  • Learn the pinyin and correct stroke order for the 7 characters introduced in lesson 3 using your writing workbook, Cyberchinese-Online, or right here on this page. Click the Chinese characters listed at the top of the page.
  • Learn the new vocabulary introduced in lesson 3. You can practice with the online Table Building Activity.
  • Be able to ask and answer basic questions like is somebody is busy, or fine.
  • You should be able to fluently use the following sentences in Chinese:
    1. I am very busy.
    2. I am not busy.
    3. Are you busy?
    4. He is fine.
    5. My brothers are fine.
    6. They are all fine.
    7. Are your brothers fine?
  • Be familiar with the information about the Chinese language on page 17 and 20-21 of the textbook.
New Vocabulary:
Chinese Pinyin English
 máng busy 
  negative prefix 
哥哥 gēge elder brother 
弟弟 dìdi younger brother 
他們 tāmen they 
 dōu all 
Additional language and cultural resources:
  • Below is a music video from a popular Chinese singer, Jay Chou 周杰倫. The name of the song is 牛仔(Nuízăi-Cowboys)很忙. The lyrics go by very quickly, so don't be disappointed if you don't understand.
  • As we discussed in class and you read in your textbook adjectives in Chinese are different than in English. In Mandarin Adjectives actually function as verbs. Your textbook calls these "adjectival predicates". You may also hear them referred to as "stative verbs".
    Here are a couple of links which explain a bit more about adjectives in Chinese sentences: Mandarin Language and Chinese Lessons: Predicate Adjectives
  • Negative Sentences:
    Subject + 不 + Verb

    Negative sentences are made by placing the negative 不 [bù] before the verb.

    不忙 [bù máng] not busy
    不好 [bù hǎo] not good
  • Tone Changes with 不:

    The negative 不 [bù] is pronounced with a fourth tone when it stands alone, before a pause, or before any first, second, or third tones. Before another fourth tone, however, 不 is pronounced with a second tone. In this case pinyin rules dictate that the tone mark is also changed to a second tone.

    不 [bù] + first tone
    不高 [bù gāo] ➔ [bù gāo] not tall
    不 [bù] + second tone
    不忙 [bù máng] ➔ [bù máng] not busy
    不 [bù] + third tone
    不好 [bù hǎo] ➔ [bù hǎo] not good
    不小 [bù xiǎo] ➔ [bù xiǎo] not small; little
    不 [bú] + fourth tone
    不貴 [bù guì] ➔ [bú guì] not expensive
    不大 [bù dà] ➔ [bú dà] not big
    不胖 [bù pàng] ➔ [bú pàng] not fat
    不瘦 [bù shòu] ➔ [bú shòu] not skinny
    不累 [bù lèi] ➔ [bú lèi] not tired
    不快 [bù kuài] ➔ [bú kuài] not fast
  • Plural Pronouns:

    Generally Chinese does not use plurals, with the exception of personal pronouns. In the case of personal pronouns (我,你, and 他) a plural marker is always used.

    我 + 們 ➔ 我們 [wǒmen] we, us
    你 + 們 ➔ 你們 [nǐmen] you
    他 + 們 ➔ 他們 [tāmen] they, them
  • The Adverb 都:

    • 都 All or Both:
      Subject + 都 + Verb

      The adverb 都 [dōu] always comes after the subject and before the verb. Use 都 to indicate that the verb is true for all the subject. Since 都 is a modifier, when used with a single syllable stative verb like 好 or 忙, it is not necessary to use another modifier like 很.

      他們都很忙。 (They are all very busy.)
      我哥哥都好。 (My older brothers are both well.)
      你弟弟都高嗎? (Are your younger brothers all tall?)
    • 都 and Negation:
      Subject + 都 + 不 + Verb
      Subject + 不 + 都 + Verb

      The adverb 都 [dōu] can appear before or after a negation. The position of 都 changes the meaning of the statement. When 都 precedes the negative (都不) it indicates that the entire subject is not the verb. If 都 follows the negative (不都) it means that the verb is not the case for the entire subject.

      我們都不好。 (We are all not well.)
      我們不都好。 (Some of us are well.)
      你們都不很忙嗎? (Are you both not very busy?)
      你們不都很忙嗎? (You are not both very busy?)
      他哥哥,弟弟都不累。 (His older brother and younger brother are both not tired.)
      他哥哥,弟弟,不都累。 (Not all of his older brothers and younger brothers are tired.)
  • Basic Possessive Statements:
    Pronoun + Person Noun

    Mandarin has a possessive particle we will learn about in lesson 6, but in this lesson possession is indicated by placing a personal noun directly after a pronoun. To say my older brother just use the pronoun 我 [wǒ] followed by the person noun 哥哥 [gēge].

    你哥哥 [nǐmen gēge] your older brother
    他弟弟 [tā dìdi] his little brother
    我們 lǎoshī [wǒmen lǎoshī] our teacher